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That Was the Year That Was – 1968
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The world would never be the same again

It was a year of seismic social and political change across the globe. From the burgeoning anti-Vietnam war and civil rights movements in the United States, protests and revolutions in Europe and the first comprehensive coverage of war and resultant famine in Africa.

To some, 1968 was the year of sex, drugs, and rock and roll. Yet it was also the year of the Martin Luther King, Jr., and Bobby Kennedy assassinations; the riots at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago; Prague Spring; the antiwar movement and the Tet Offensive; Black Power; the generation gap; avant-garde theater; the upsurge of the women’s movement; and the beginning of the end for the Soviet Union.


1968 In both Europe and America Japanese imported cars and other goods were continuing to rise and trouble the governments of UK and USA as they worried about industries in their own countries being effected and jobs lost. In the spring of 1968 on 4th April The Rev Martin Luther King was assassinated and Robert Kennedy was mortally wounded when he is shot by Sirhan Sirhan.

The peace movement had continued to grow and more and more Americans were against the war in Vietnam, and once again more riots occurred throughout cities in America. The music scene was once again set by the "Beatles" and the "Rolling Stones" , and fashion flirted with see through blouses and midis and maxis skirts joined the Mini Skirt as part of the fashion trends. There is a Flu Pandemic in Hong Kong and the first Black power salute is seen on Television worldwide during an Olympics medal ceremony.

Another 96 Indians and Pakistanis from Kenya had arrived in Britain, the latest in a growing exodus of Kenyan Asians fleeing from laws which prevent them making a living. The party included nine children under two, and all flew in on cut-price one-way tickets costing about £60 – less than half the normal single fare. Omar Sharmar, an Indian who was forced to close his haulage business in Mombasa when the government refused to grant him a licence, estimates he has lost £2,000.


Enoch Powell’s Rivers Of Blood Speech

The Conservative right-winger Enoch Powell has made a hard-hitting speech attacking the government’s immigration policy. Addressing a Conservative association meeting in Birmingham, Mr Powell said Britain had to be mad to allow in 50,000 dependents of immigrants each year.

He compared it to watching a nation busily engaged in heaping up its own funeral pyre.

The MP for Wolverhampton South West called for an immediate reduction in immigration and the implementation of a Conservative policy of "urgent" encouragement of those already in the UK to return home.

"It can be no part of any policy that existing families should be kept divided. But there are two directions on which families can be reunited," he said.

Mr Powell compared enacting legislation such as the Race Relations Bill to "throwing a match on to gunpowder".

He said that as he looked to the future he was filled with a sense of foreboding.

"Like the Roman, I seem to see the river Tiber foaming with much blood," he said.

He estimated that by the year 2000 up to seven million people – or one in ten of the population – would be of immigrant descent.

Mr Powell, the shadow defence spokesman, was applauded during and after his 45-mintue speech.

However, it is likely his comments will be less warmly received by the Conservative party leader, Edward Heath.

Several opinion polls were stating that the majority of the public shares Mr Powell’s fears.


Top Of The Pops from 15th February 1968 introduced by Jimmy Savile & Dave Cash and featuring: Manfred Mann – Mighty Quinn, The Foundations – Back On My Feet Again, Status Quo – Pictures Of Matchstick Men, Alan Price Set – Don’t Stop The Carnival, Brenton Wood – Gimme Little Sign, The Move – Fire Brigade, Hermans Hermits – I Can Take Or Leave Your Loving, Amen Corner – Bend Me Shape Me, Dave Dee, Dozy, Beaky, Mick & Tich – Legend Of Xanadu.


1968 Timeline

January – The Ford Escort car is introduced to replace the Anglia.

Dutch Elm Disease continues to increase with tens of thousands of trees now destroyed.

British Post office introduces First Class Post.

London Bridge sold for 1 million. and later re-erected in Arizona.

The popular rock band the Beatles released the “White Album,” an untitled double album that featured some of the legendary band’s most experimental music. Many of the songs were written when the band was in Rishikesh, India while they were attending a meditation camp. While the album received mixed reviews at the time, it still reached the number one spot on the music charts in both the United Kingdom and United States. Modern critics mark the album as on of the best albums ever created and it remains popular today.

The first public demonstration of the computer mouse, video conferencing, teleconferencing, email, and hypertext.

1 January – The Colour television licence is introduced when a £5 "colour supplement" is added to the £5 monochrome licence fee, therefore making the cost of a colour licence £10.

1 January – Cecil Day-Lewis is announced as the new Poet Laureate.

5 January – Gardeners’ World debuts on BBC1 television, featuring Percy Thrower.

8 January – The Prime Minister, Harold Wilson, endorses the ‘I’m Backing Britain’ campaign, encouraging workers to work extra time without pay or take other actions to help competitiveness, which is spreading across Britain.

16 January – The Prime Minister announces that the Civil Defence Corps is being stood down.

4 February – 96 Indians and Pakistanis arrive in Britain from Kenya. Some 1,500 Asians have now arrived in Britain from Kenya, where they were forced out by increasingly draconian immigration laws.

4 February – The cult series The Prisoner finishes its first run on British television.

16 February – The Beatles, Mike Love, Mia Farrow, Donovan and others travel to India to visit Maharishi Mahesh Yogi at Rishikesh.

6 – 18 February – Great Britain and Northern Ireland compete at the Winter Olympics in Grenoble, France, but do not win any medals.

18 February – David Gilmour joins Pink Floyd, replacing founder Syd Barrett, who had checked himself into a psychiatric hospital.

14 February – Northampton, the county town of Northamptonshire, is designated as a New town, with the Wilson government hoping to double its size and population by 1980.

24 February – Announcement of the first discovery (last year) of a pulsar by astronomer Jocelyn Bell Burnell working with Antony Hewish at the University of Cambridge.

1 March – First performance of an Andrew Lloyd Webber–Tim Rice musical, Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat in its original form as a "pop cantata", by pupils of Colet Court preparatory school in Hammersmith.

2 March – Coal mining in the Black Country, which played a big part in the Industrial Revolution, ends after some 300 years with the closure of Baggeridge Colliery near Sedgley.

12 March – Mauritius achieves independence from British Rule.

15 March – George Brown, British Foreign Secretary, resigns.

17 March – A demonstration in London’s Grosvenor Square against U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War leads to violence – 91 police injured, 200 demonstrators arrested.

30 March – The Yardbirds record their live album Live Yardbirds at the Anderson Theater.

1 April – Thames Valley Police is formed by the amalgamation of Berkshire Constabulary, Buckinghamshire Constabulary, Oxford City Police, Oxfordshire Constabulary and Reading Borough Police.

6 April – The 13th Eurovision Song Contest is held in the Royal Albert Hall, London. The winning song, Spain’s "La, la, la" is sung by Massiel, after Spanish authorities refused to allow Joan Manuel Serrat to perform it in Catalan. The UK finish in second place, just one point behind, with the song "Congratulations" sung by Cliff Richard, which goes on to outsell the winning Spanish entry throughout Europe.

7 April – Motor racing world champion Jim Clark, 32, is killed when his car leaves the track at 170 mph and smashes into a tree during a Formula 2 race at Hockenheim.

11 April – Popularity of Harold Wilson’s Labour government is shown to be slumping as opinion polls show the Conservatives, led by Edward Heath, with a lead of more than 20 points.

18 April – London Bridge sold to American entrepreneur Robert P. McCulloch who rebuilds it at Lake Havasu City, Arizona.

20 April – Enoch Powell makes his controversial Rivers of Blood Speech on immigration. The speech is made at the Midland Hotel in Birmingham to a meeting of the Conservative Political Centre at 2:30 pm. The Birmingham-based television company ATV saw an advance copy of the speech that morning, and its news editor ordered a television crew to go to the venue, where they filmed sections of the speech.

The speech provokes great outcry among the British public, making Powell one of the most popular and loathed politicians in the country, and leading to his dismissal from the Shadow Cabinet by Conservative party leader Edward Heath.

21 April – Enoch Powell is dismissed from the Shadow Cabinet by Opposition leader Edward Heath due to the Rivers of Blood Speech, despite several opinion polls stating that the majority of the public shares Mr Powell’s fears.

23 April – Five and ten pence coins are introduced in the run-up to Decimalisation, which will be complete within the next three years.

27 April – The Abortion Act 1967 comes into effect, legalising abortion on a number of grounds, with free provision through the National Health Service.

3 May – Mr Frederick West (aged 45) becomes Britain’s first heart transplant patient.

4 May – Mary Hopkin performs on the British TV show Opportunity Knocks. Hopkin catches the attention of model Twiggy, who recommends her to Paul McCartney. McCartney would soon sign Hopkin to Apple Records.

8 May – The Kray Twins, 34-year-old Ronnie and Reggie, are among 18 men arrested in dawn raids across London. They stand accused of a series of crimes including murder, fraud, blackmail and assault. Their 41-year-old brother Charlie Kray is one of the other men under arrest.

11 May – Manchester City win the Football League First Division title.

14 May – At a press conference, John Lennon and Paul McCartney introduce the Beatles’ new business concept, Apple Corps, Ltd., a disastrously mismanaged entertainment company that included a recording studio, a record label, and clothing store.

16 May – Ronan Point tower block at Newham in east London collapses after a gas explosion, killing four occupants.

18 May – West Bromwich Albion win the FA Cup for the fifth time, with Jeff Astle scoring the only goal of the game against Everton at the Wembley Stadium.

20 May – Harlech (which became HTV in 1970) starts its dual service for Wales and the West Country, replacing the interim ITSWW, which had replaced TWW on 4 March.

22 May – The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland permits the ordination of women as ministers.

29 May – Manchester United become the first English winners of the European Cup after beating Benfica 4-1 in extra-time at Wembley Stadium.

30 May – The Beatles begin recording The White Album (officially titled, simply, The Beatles). Sessions would span over 4 months, ending on 14 October.

7 June – Start of Ford sewing machinists strike at the Dagenham assembly plant: women workers strike for pay comparable to that of men.

8 June – Martin Luther King, Jr.’s killer, James Earl Ray, arrested in London.

8 June – premiere of Harrison Birtwistle’s opera Punch and Judy in the Jubilee Hall, Aldeburgh during the Aldeburgh Festival.

10 June – National Health Service reintroduces prescription charges.

14 June – Manfred Mann appear in the first edition of the BBC2 series Colour Me Pop.

18 June – Frederick West, Britain’s first heart transplant, dies 46 days after his operation.

20 June – Austin Currie, Member of Parliament at Stormont in Northern Ireland, along with others, squats a house in Caledon to protest discrimination in housing allocations.

4 July – Alec Rose returns from a 354-day single-handed round-the-world trip for which he receives a knighthood the following day.

7 July – The Yardbirds perform for the last time before disbanding.

10 July – Floods in South West England.

Flooding had been occurring throughout the South West from mid-day but the full fury of the flood was felt during the hours of darkness. By 5.am almost every stream, brook and river in the area had burst its banks causing death, devastation and despair on a scale greater than any in living memory.

That night, seven people lost their lives, hundreds more suffered a terrifying ordeal of hardship and loss, bridges that had stood for centuries were washed away or severely damaged and countless houses, shops, factories and other properties were engulfed. It was a night that re-kindled the ‘spirit of the blitz’, a night when numerous selfless acts of heroism and community spirit prevailed.

As night gave way to day and the full extent of the disaster was revealed, it became obvious that for a great many people life would not return to normal for a number of days yet to come.. . for same it never did.


17 July – The Beatles animated film Yellow Submarine debuts in London.

28 July – Final day on air for ABC which had broadcast to the North and Midlands regions during weekends.

The 1968 Contract Round sees the end of weekend franchises in these regions. From the following day, Granada and ATV broadcast seven days a week. The North is split into two regions with Granada broadcasting to the North West and Yorkshire Television broadcasting to the Yorkshire region. It is also the last day on air for ATV London which lost its weekend franchise to the newly formed London Weekend Television.

29 July – ATV begins broadcasting seven days a week in the Midlands, while Granada begins broadcasting seven days a week to the North West and Yorkshire Television does likewise in its newly created region.

30 July – Thames Television goes on air, having taken over the ITV London weekday franchise from Rediffusion, London. Thames is a result of a merger between ABC and Rediffusion, ABC having been awarded the London weekday franchise.

30 July – Magpie premieres on ITV.

31 July – Popular sitcom Dad’s Army begins its nine-year run on BBC1.

August – John McVie marries Christine Perfect.

2 August – London Weekend Television takes over the ITV London weekend franchise from ATV London. They went on air initially using the name London Weekend Television but then adopted the name London Weekend before reverting to London Weekend Television (often abbreviated to LWT) in 1978.

August – Independent Television technicians strike immediately after the 1968 franchise changes, causing a national stoppage. The individual companies are off the air for several weeks and an emergency service is established.

The ITV Emergency National Service is presented by management personnel with no regional variations. This was the first time that a uniform presentation practice was adopted across all regions.

4 August – Yes performs for the first time, at a summer camp.

8 August – Royal Navy Leander-class frigate HMS Scylla is launched at Devonport, the last ship to be built in a Royal Dockyard.

11 August – British Rail’s last steam train service runs on the standard gauge: steam locomotives make the 314-mile return passenger journey from Liverpool to Carlisle before being dispatched to the scrapyard or preservation.

31 August – First Isle of Wight Festival. Headline Acts – Jefferson Airplane. Other Acts – Arthur Brown, The Move, Smile, Tyrannosaurus Rex, Plastic Penny, Fairport Convention and The Pretty Things.

September – The new school year in England sees the first local authorities adopt three tier education, where 5-7 infant, 7-11 junior schools are replaced by 5-8 or 5-9 first schools and 8-12 or 9-13 middle schools, with the transfer age to grammar and secondary modern schools being increased to 12 or 13.

Japanese car maker Nissan began importing its range of Datsun badged family cars to Britain.

7 September – Led Zeppelin performs for the first time, billed as The New Yardbirds (the Yardbirds had disbanded two months earlier, and guitarist Jimmy Page subsequently formed this new group).

8 September – Tennis player Virginia Wade wins the 1968 U.S. Open Women’s Singles event.

15 September – Floods in South East England.

15 September – Song of Summer, Ken Russell’s noted TV documentary about Frederick Delius, is shown for the first time as part of the BBC’s Omnibus series.

16 September – General Post Office divides post into first-class and second-class services.

19 September – The Who begin recording Tommy, a rock opera that tells the story about a deaf, dumb and blind boy, including his experiences with life and the relationship with his family.

26 September – Theatres Act 1968 ends censorship of the theatre.

27 September – The US musical Hair opens in London following the removal of theatre censorship.

October – The M1 motorway is completed when the final 35-mile section opens between Rotherham and Leeds.

2 October – A woman from Birmingham gives birth to the first recorded instance of live Sextuplets in the UK.

5 October – A civil rights march in Derry, Northern Ireland, which includes several Stormont and British MPs, is batoned off the streets by the Royal Ulster Constabulary.

6 October – British racing drivers Jackie Stewart, Graham Hill and John Surtees take the first three places at the United States Grand Prix.

8 October – Enoch Powell warns that immigrants "may change the character" of England.

12 – 27 October – Great Britain and Northern Ireland compete at the Olympics in Mexico City and win 5 gold, 5 silver and 3 bronze medals.

13 October – The rebuilt Euston railway station opens.

18 October – National Giro opens for business through the General Post Office, with administrative headquarters at Bootle.

27 October – Police and protestors clash at an anti-Vietnam War protest outside the Embassy of the United States in London.

31 October – Alan Bennett’s play Forty Years On premiered at the Apollo Theatre in the West End.

8 November – John Lennon and his wife Cynthia are divorced.

18 November – James Watt Street fire: A warehouse fire in Glasgow kills 22.

21 November – The Cyril Lord carpet business goes into receivership.

22 November – The Kinks Are the Village Green Preservation Society released.

22 November – The Beatles (also known as "The White Album") by The Beatles is released.

26 November – The Race Relations Act is passed, making it illegal to refuse housing, employment or public services to people in Britain because of their ethnic background.

26 November – Cream plays their farewell concert at the Royal Albert Hall. It will be the last time Eric Clapton, Jack Bruce, and Ginger Baker play together until their 1993 induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

29 November – The Dawley New Town (Designation) Amendment (Telford) Order extends the boundaries of Dawley New Town in Shropshire and renames it Telford.

30 November – The Trade Descriptions Act comes into force, preventing shops and traders from describing goods in a misleading way.

2 December – Jimi Hendrix’s manager Chas Chandler quits over differences with Hendrix during the recording of Electric Ladyland.

17 December – Mary Bell, an 11-year-old girl from Newcastle upon Tyne, is sentenced to life detention for the manslaughter of two small boys.

Official opening of first phase of the Royal Mint’s new Llantrisant plant in South Wales.

22 December – The Animals reunite for one benefit concert at the Newcastle City Hall while Eric Burdon & The Animals are disbanding.

Obituarie: Chas Chandler

When Jimi Hendrix set fire to his guitar, Chas Chandler was ready with the lighter fuel. When Slade were desperate for a new image, Chandler dressed the band up as skinheads. The tough, outspoken Geordie was the perfect manager for both these diverse talents. A fouder member of The Animals, he could sympathise with musicians and understand their problems. As a canny businessman he also understood the power of publicity and the importance of image.
Few Sixties stars were able to make the jump from pop to business. They lacked the discipline and know-how. But when Chandler quit The Animals and swapped his caftan for a suit, he swiftly became one of the most respected and successful managers and producers of the rock age.

He discovered Jimi Hendrix, but it was his energy and commitment that helped turn a shy young American backing guitarist into a dynamic performer and a rock legend. Their mutual regard was based on trust and friendship. When their partnership eventually broke down, Chandler found it a bitter blow. But just before Hendrix died in September 1970, he called upon his old manager once more for help and guidance. Chas Chandler was a man that anxious artists knew they could trust.

He was born Bryan Chandler in Heaton, near Newcastle in 1938. After leaving school his first job was as a turner in the Tyneside shipyards. The first brush with with music came when he took up playing a homemade guitar. He later switched to bass and was in the Alan Price Trio when singer Eric Burdon joined the band in 1962.

Renamed The Animals, they quickly became one of Britain’s most dynamic R&B groups. From Newcastle’s Club A Go Go, they came to London in 1964, when they had a massive hit with "House of the Rising Sun". Many more followed, among them "Don’t Let Me Be Misunderstood" (1964) and "We’ve Got To Get Out Of This Place" (1965), but disillusioned by their lack of financial reward and exhausted by touring,

The Animals broke up in late 1966. Said Chandler: "We toured non-stop for three years, doing 300 gigs a year and we hardly got a penny. But our manager Mike Jeffery did all right. 25 per cent of the gross of 300 gigs a year, that was good money."

During the Animals’ last US tour Chandler was advised by Keith Richards’ girlfriend, Linda Keith, to see an up-coming guitarist, Jimmy James, who was playing with the Blue Flames at the Cafe Wha in New York’s Greenwich Village.

Chandler was especially impressed by Jimmy James’s performance of the Tim Rose song "Hey Joe", offered to be his manager and invited him to London. James asked Chandler if he could introduce him to Eric Clapton and Jeff Beck, and that clinched the deal.

Chandler had already decided to stop playing himself. "I was never that good on bass guitar," he confessed. He brought his new find, now renamed Jimi Hendrix, to London in September 1966, and recruited Mitch Mitchell and Noel Redding to form Hendrix’s new group The Experience. He also formed a partnership with The Animals’ manager Mike Jeffery to look after Hendrix’s business affairs for the next two years.

Chandler eventually produced all Hendrix’s hit singles including "Hey Joe", "Purple Haze", and "The Wind Cries Mary" and his first two albums, Are You Experienced and Axis: bold as love.

He first presented The Experience at a series of London showcase gigs where Mick Jagger and Paul McCartney were among the stars who flocked to see Hendrix kitted out in Afro hairstyle and military uniform.

When The Experience played with The Walker Brothers at the Finsbury Park Astoria in London, Hendrix and Chandler debated how they could liven up their act.

The journalist Keith Altham said that as Pete Townshend smashed up his guitar, it was a pity Hendrix couldn’t set his on fire: "Chas immediately ordered his roadie Gerry Stickells to get some lighter fuel. Jimi only ever set fire to his guitar three times but it made history."

In 1968 Chandler quit as Hendrix’s manager half way through the Electric Ladyland album sessions, fed up with endless re-recording and the surfeit of hangers-on in the studio. He fell out with Jeffery over the way Hendrix’s career was being handled, and in 1969 returned to London to his Swedish wife Lotta, who was expecting their first child. Shortly afterwards he set up Montgrow Productions with Robert Stigwood.

Their aim was to find and develop new talent but Stigwood didn’t share Chandler’s enthusiasm for his next discovery, the Wolverhampton band Slade, and pulled out, leaving Chas Chandler as their sole manager. He paid off their previous management with pounds 100 and encouraged the adoption of a skinhead look, with cropped hair and bovver boots. Slade’s lead singer Noddy Holder said that the band "worshipped" Chandler for the way he had transformed their fortunes.

Under his guidance they became of the most prolific hit makers of the 1970s – their singles included "Coz I Luv You" (1971) and "We’ve Got to Get Out of this Place" (1972) – though they failed to gain American success. In 1979 he withdrew from management and formed his own record label Barn Productions. At the same time he separated from his first wife, and left London to retire to Newcastle, where he married his second wife, Madeleine Stringer, a former Newcastle beauty queen.

In 1983 he became part of the re-formed Animals, and had to relearn the bass guitar. It was not a happy experience. The group spent most of the time arguing and at one point Chandler was seen grabbing Eric Burdon by the scruff of the neck.

In recent years he helped local bands in the North East to record their own music, and he also set up in business with architect and saxophonist Nigel Stranger. They established Park Arena Ltd, which developed the 10,500- seater Newcastle Arena, the largest sports and entertainment venue in the north-east. It opened last year after nine years work, and has already featured artists such as Neil Diamond, David Bowie and Pulp.

A big-built man who liked to drink and smoke, he had, said Keith Altham "enormous drive and self-belief. It was that enthusiasm that helped both Jimi Hendrix and Slade become stars. He’d just tell everyone: ‘They are the best in the world!’"

Bryan "Chas" Chandler, bass player, manager and record producer: born Newcastle upon Tyne 18 December 1938; married twice (two sons, two daughters); died Newcastle 17 July 1996.


4 April – Freewheelers (1968–1973)
30 July – Magpie (1968–1980)
15 August – Nearest and Dearest (1968–1973)
21 September – Strange Report (1968–1969)
24 September – How We Used To Live (1968–2002)
25 September – The Champions (1968–1969)
5 November – Father, Dear Father (1968–1973)
8 November – Please Sir! (1968–1972)
16 November – Journey to the Unknown (1968–1969)
Unknown – The Big Match (1968–1992)

1967-1968 Football

First Division – Manchester City
Second Division – Ipswich Town
Third Division – Oxford United
Fourth Division – Luton Town
FA Cup – West Bromwich Albion
League Cup – Leeds United
Charity Shield – Manchester United and Tottenham Hotspur (shared)
Home Championship – England

Latest Product Recall News

Winter In Baltimore. . .PANIC!
Product Recall
Image by Cayusa
Day 348 of 365

We are currently under a winter storm watch here in Maryland. They are predicting a wintery mix and have even called for ice pellets. Accumulation could be anywhere from 3" to nothing. Of course that doesn’t matter to the average Baltimorean. Even the hint of snow or ice in the forecast throws the average Baltimoreon into a tizzy and they hit the grocery stores in force. By the end of the night preceding the winter event there is hardly a gallon of milk, toilet paper or bread to be found.

I’ve never understood this behavior. I’ve lived most of my life and all of my adult life and I can’t recall a time when my very survival was threatened due to a lack of any of those three products. I mentioned this behavior before in my photos, but having experienced it again today I just had to mention it again. It is a behavior I have never understood and I don’t think I ever will.

I mentioned above that I’ve lived here most of my life and all of my adult life. In all those years I don’t think I have ever heard a forecast that included "ice pellets." What is an ice pellet? How is it different than hail or frozen rain or sleet. All I can think of when I hear that term is icy precipitation that looks like rabbit droppings. I guess I’ll just have to wait until tomorrow to see what exactly an ice pellet really is.

Latest Food Recall News

13_then to sew all the red together
Food Recall
Image by Jim Surkamp
Script below – Read with Images Sequenced in the Script – JS

The Song of Mary Entler by Jim Surkamp
civilwarscholars.com/?p=13488 7888 words

The Song of Mary Entler Herrington by Jim Surkamp

The Song of Mary Louise Entler Herrington (1840-1932)

Made possible with the generous, community-minded support of American Public University system, offering a quality, affordable, online education. Interpretations in civilwarscholars.com videos and posts do not in any way reflect modern-day policies and positions of American Public University System. More . . .

Flag Dangerous:
Carry the Secret Mail:
The Sad Fate of the Great Western:
A Wartime Shepherdstown Each Day:
A Sidetracked Mission:
“Fraternizing” With the Enemy:
Peacetime – Eternal Tide of Memories:
The Eyes of Age:

About the end of the heydays of a great inn; about the innkeeper’s feisty, adventurous – amorous – young daughter during the Civil War who lived to tell about it and see her family’s inn perish


2_The 1850s in Shepherdstown
The 1850s in Shepherdstown: Good Times for Joseph and Mary Entler

3_The Entlers boarded travelers
The Entlers boarded travelers and stabled their teams by the score in their Great Western Inn on Shepherdstown’s German Street.

As Mary Louise Entler Herrington (hereafter “MLH”) told it:
After my father bought it in 1809, he hung a large sign swung across the pavement at the east corner of the house. A heavy post at the curb supported one side and the other side was fastened to the house.

4_In the middle of the sign
In the middle of the sign in large letters that were plainly visible for squares up and down the street was the word, “INN”, and just below that, ‘JOS. ENTLER”.

For many years it was a welcome abode to the weary traveler, for then all traveling was by wagon and carriage from Ohio and Kentucky to Baltimore and Washington, where their produce was sold and groceries and other commodities were taken back. All these white-covered wagons were placed in the large grounds and the weary horses were comfortably bedded down and fed in the large stone stables by good trusty colored men.

The house was a quaint, 52-foot-long weatherboard house with massive stone steps to both front doors and stone trimmings and steps to the front cellars and long massive stone stiles or (carriage stepping stones).

The dining room was 34-feet-long. The ice house was under the dining room and was filled every winter with twenty-five, four-horse wagon loads of ice, which lasted until fall. The ice was from the Potomac River.

5_The large fireplace was in the kitchen
The large fireplace was in the kitchen that also had the cranes and pothooks and hangers.

Seventeen rooms were in the house and many also had large old-fashioned fireplaces and were finished with high-paneled mantelpieces.

In the 1850s children remembered the fancy carriages, with many horses pulling, making the smart, sharp turn from the main streeet to the lane leading to the rear stables.

6_lane leading to the rear stables
All circuses stopped at this inn and pitched their tents in the large lot arranging the cages of wild animals around the circle inside and all other wagons outside the tent.

Joseph Entler moved his family to Wingerd Cottage in 1858 and leased out the Great Western. Then that all ended – and, so did the Great Western.


7_Twenty-one-year-old Mary Louise Entler – in an act of defiance
Twenty-one-year-old Mary Louise Entler – in an act of defiance – and several friends sat in chairs in the big hall of Wingerd Cottage sewing . . and sewing – ripping stars from an American flag mailed to them from New Orleans, that once waved from a ship of Rezin Davis Shepherd’s, as he perhaps thought such a flag might be more trouble to have in New Orleans, as the new war boiled over and Louisiana seceded from the Union in early 1861.

8_Mary Entler Herrington retold her past
Mary Licklider, a niece, recalled how Mary Entler Herrington retold her past before dying in 1932:

A U.S. flag, probably made of wool bunting fabric was given to four or five young girls (young girls at the time), by Mr.

9_Rezin Shepherd
Rezin Shepherd who lived in New Orleans. In the summer he lived at Wild Goose Farm. The flag was one from one of his vessels. It was sent to us by Mr. James Shepherd and was to be converted into a Confederate flag, a work that was dangerous at the time, being in disputed territory. We could work only when our men were in the lines and had to be very cautious then.

10_Joseph Entler owned and lived at Wingerd Cottage
My father Joseph Entler owned and lived at Wingerd Cottage during the war and there the flag was made. The location off from town and the large wide hall were ideal places for the work, which took many anxious weeks to complete.

11_It was very tedious to rip every seam
It was very tedious to rip every seam of the stripes in such a way as not to ravel the bunting.

12_Every star was ripped from the blue field
Every star was ripped from the blue field, and

13_then to sew all the red together
then to sew all the red together

14_all the white to form the bars red, white, and red
and all the white to form the bars red, white, and red.

15_Of course we had a surplus of stars
Of course we had a surplus of stars as the Confederacy was young.

After many weeks of work, the flag was finished and a beautiful Confederate flag was ready to be sent through the line to Company B. It was hidden away awaiting a safe transfer. (Mary’s brother – Cato Moore Entler – was with Company B of the 2nd Virginia Infantry).

MLH recalled an investigation in the fall of 1861:

16_I heard the tramp of cavalry
I heard the tramp of cavalry and clank of swords and sabers. I looked out the window and saw the cottage was surrounded by “Yankee” cavalry.

Oh, the flag, what was to be done with it? I heard the officer read orders to my father to search his premises thoroughly for contraband goods. My father seemed to be protesting against the search. But that gave me a little time to take the flag from its hiding place in a chest. The house was surrounded. I could not get out to hide it.

I pulled a dress from the wall and put the flag in it and threw the dress carelessly across the back of a chair. Skirts were very wide with deep facings upon them. I put the little flags that we wore on our dresses and letters under the carpet.

17_My door was pushed open
My door was pushed open by Capt. Horner of Col. Coles’ Cavalry and the search began. Every bureau drawer and closet was searched, even the grandfather clock where reposed letters to go through the lines. But they were too deep in the bottom of the old clock to be detected. Everything was handled but the blue-striped dress hovering over its precious treasure. It was too insignificant to attract their notice and they gave up the search, but rather in a bad humor. The flag was safe and sent to Company B. That flag would be readily recognized by its many seams and its homemade marks. Now what became of that flag is a mystery.

Due to confusion created by units carrying different flags after 1st Manassas, the 30th of October 1861 saw Governor Letcher present every Virginia regiment with a bunting flag. Another private group in Charles Town had had a regimental flag made for the 2nd Virginia infantry regiment that the unit reportedly carried into battle at First Manassas/Bull Run, but was smuggled back to the Rutherfords in Charles Town.


March, 1862

MLH recalled:
19_We collected all letters and concealed them
We collected all letters and concealed them by carefully sewing them between the ruching and dress. It required neatness and patience to make the work look innocent of anything contraband. We started on our march one bright beautiful morning but the roads being soft and muddy and we being not yet accustomed to marching could not get over much ground as rapidly as Stonewall Jackson’s men. The first night was spent at the home of Mr. Foley where another mail was collected. Another bright morning blessed our errand and when the purple shades of evening were gathering in the west we entered Charles Town as leisurely and passed the Union soldiers as indifferently as though we were out for an evening stroll. What a triumph it would have been for them to have secured that mail; how they would have gloated over every sacred sentence in those letters. My heart thrilled with fear at the thought although apparently so indifferent to their presence.


December 26, 1862: The 12th Pennsylvania cavalry – The Bull Run Racers – crossed over the river ford into town and the (Federal-sympathcizing) refugees all came back from Maryland with a fire in their eyes and revenge for Mort Cookus’ blood (who was shot and killed by Andrew Leopold near Dam No. 4 on November 19th. (The refugees) declared that every Southern man’s house should be burned down. – Gallaher in “The Shepherdstown Register.”

The property was a hotel (in market for rent at the time). It was taken possession of and occupied by a Pennsylvania Cavalry Company. The extensive grounds in which were apple trees and vegetables were trampled and all the fencing destroyed.


MLH recalled:
1863 still finds our town disputed territory and a veritable “deserted village” – old men, women, and children with a very few Union men . . . In time of war when both armies have fallen back, a town presents a most desolate and forlorn appearance-the old people, women and children have no definite plans. They stand about in groups writing and talking of the latest battle or the expected skirmishes. Their homes are places to retire from inclement weather rather than to adorn – the table to satisfy hunger rather than the delightful board where sweet companionship mingled with health-giving food.

No systematic housekeeping, no aim, no object in performing any household duties. All energy was concentrated in doing for the soldiers. “When our boys come home we will do thus and so” was the oft repeated phrase. Sometimes at the dead of night the report of a pistol shot would warn us that the rebels were in town. But when daylight came we saw only the blue coats patrolling the streets, and they would leave as mysteriously as the rebels.


23_Mary Entler’s Dangerous Mission Gets Sidetracked
May – 1863 – Mary Entler’s Dangerous Mission Gets Sidetracked

24_Raider Andrew Leopold
NOTE Raider Andrew Leopold, whose sister, Sally Zittle, was a friend of Mary Entler, had been captured in late April, 1863 near Berryville and taken to a jail, awaiting trail for murder and other crimes.- JS

A beautiful May morning, balmy air waiting the perfume of flowers over the country submerged in war. Sparkling dew drops resting in the bosom of such blossoms like tiny tear drops-weeping for the sad hearts made sad by war. God sends beautiful days in war as well as peace- we must remember that.

A young prepossessing girl introduced herself to me on this May morning as a sister of Andrew Leopold. She told me her brother had been captured by the Yankees and was confined in Fort McHenry, MD, and that the entreaties of her widowed mother had induced her to try to get through the Federal lines to have an interview with (Confederate) General J.E.B. Stuart in regard to having her brother exchanged as a prisoner of war. . . She had been sent to me by a southern woman who knew I had carried letters through to Charles Town and thought I would accompany the young lady to that place, and acquaint her with friends who would assist her through the lines. I hesitated a moment and she said with tears that his mother had a message from Baltimore that if some powerful influence was not brought to bear immediately that her brother would be executed as a guerilla. That decided the matter.

We started off in a one horse carriage for Charles Town. She as a traveler was attired in a brown suit with a cape to match trimmed with quilling around it and a brown straw hat with a veil. I was to spend the day only and was dressed in a blue “Dolly Varden” pattern dress, blue silk bonnet with wide turn over cuffs and concealed in the lining of these cuffs were slips of paper with names of prominent Southern sympathizers who we were to call upon for any assistance. Before starting we concluded it would be better to go under fictitious names – she as Lucy Hamilton, and I as Louise Hamilton, her cousin. And with hearts filled with hope we started off that bright May morning on our errand of mercy.

Charles Town was reached in good time. We stopped where we were directed at Mrs. L’s and urged for safety to stay all night here-Lucy to start next morning southward and I to return home would arouse no suspicion. The next morning was quite as beautiful and arrangements were completed when I found she was getting timid about starting off alone. She entreated me to go just as far as Berryville and then she thought she would feel brave enough to travel alone. It was a big undertaking for two young girls as the country was then all excitement and confusion. I finally agreed to go to Berryville. We knew exactly where to stop and whom to see. All was planned before starting from home. I will never forget how beautiful Berryville looked the morning we drove up to the hotel. It was a village embowered in beautiful green trees, blooming flowers. The bees humming in the nectar-laden flowers produced that lazy, peaceful quiet that is so soothing to tired nerves. We made our arrangements with the proprietor and took a stroll through the pretty, cool looking streets.

We met Union soldiers and plenty of them but we did not feel any fear of our plans failing. In the evening we called upon the family next to the hotel and had music until late that night. Next morning while arranging to separate we were visited by a Yankee officer saying he wished to know here were were going, and that we must take the oath. At first we refused to take the oath but when we consented to take it he would not let us, but placed us under arrest. What a frustrating of all our plans. How my heart ached for that poor girl. How she had built her hopes on securing the release of her brother on this venture.

Under arrest by the Federals, Gen. Milroy flabbergasted:

25_head-quarters of General Milroy
Winchester reached, we were taken to the head-quarters of General Milroy where we found women, young and old, proud and defiant, now arguing their claims and proclaiming their grievances. One delicate, forlorn-looking widow relating to the General how his men, the Yankees, had taken her cows, her only means of support for her children. He turned from her quickly to my friend and me – if there had been the least disposition on my part to be humble – his exclamation put that feeling to flight and aroused a very rebellious state of mind. “What in the devil are you doing here? If it were not for the women running around the country we would not have so much trouble.” My companion started up with surprise. “General, we did not want to come here. We did not start for this place. Your officers brought us here.” He ran fingers through his mass of snow white hair already standing straight up like the quills of a porcupine and our of the audience chamber he strode without another word. He presented a fine physique, tall, well-proportioned, erect in carriage, a wealth of snow-white hair which suggested from its stand-up appearance that his fingers had a fashion of roaming there when troubles were to be, and plans and problems of great magnitude to be wrought out.


June – 1863:

We were soon before the Provost Marshall at Martinsburg awaiting his orders. Next morning we were taken to General Kelly at Harper’s Ferry to await further orders. We were assigned to the best boarding house in the town adjoining the General’s headquarters where a great many of the officers boarded. We had a guard to watch our movements and prevent our escape if we thought of anything of the kind. We were allowed to walk around the town accompanied by the guard and sometimes were invited by officers, to whom we were introduced, to attend concerts and places of amusements but the guard invariably followed behind to the disgust of our gallants. Lucy and I ignored the guard altogether. We did not care how tired he became running over the old hills of Harper’s Ferry after us and many were the taunts and comments we overheard about “secesh” (Confederate-sympathcizing) prisoners.

“Miranda!” and the voice startled us – for it came from under the ground – a cottage, vine-clad and embowered in trees and bushes right under our feet on the slope of a hill. (The voice then said: “Here comes the two ‘secesh’ prisoners again trailing that poor tired guard after them as unusual. He looks like he is ready to drop. Much I would follow behind them over these hills.” She lived there under the hill with her beautiful daughter. She had lots and lots of beautiful flowers but not one would she give us after we humbled ourselves to ask for one because we were rebels.

At Harper’s Ferry with your five mountains, your bright Potomac, your smiling languid Shenandoah, your historic Jefferson’s Rock and romantic stone steps leading to the temple of God – St. Peter’s Church. In the yard of this church, high above the streets and houses of Harper’s Ferry, the Fifth New York Regiment Band discoursed sweet music every Sunday evening of the six weeks Lucy and I were prisoners. The sweet strains of the “Mocking Bird” as only Henry Frunkenfield could render them, echoed from Loudoun Heights across the great Shenandoah over the beautiful rock-ribbed Potomac of Maryland Heights, back again the mountain breezes wafted them though the streets and windows as if a hundred mocking birds were trilling their soul-felt song.

As a piece of fun, we were dressed in fantastic costumes, slipped down a stairway, of which the General had no knowledge to the kitchen, to dance for the cook and her black “Topsy”. The guard was told that we were about to make our escape. He hunted the house over for his prisoners and when he found us he did not recognize us for some time, our disguise was so complete. Two guards questioned us until they were finally convinced that we were not attempting an escape.

Sabbath days and week days were all the same at Harper’s Ferry during the war. The soldiers and citizens would promenade the streets. The crowds would send forth their martial airs, dignified and soul-stirring also their merry dance tunes. But this one Sabbath day seemed so different from all others that we had spent at that place. The day was declining and from the description of an Italian sunset, I think the sunset of this evening far surpassed any such Italian scene. The golden rays touched the tree tops and they looked like burnished gold. The strains of music came from the high rocks where St. Peter’s Church rests peacefully. Darts and streaks of gold tips of trees on the mountain tops – the birds twitter and call to their mates in low tones. There is a hush as if all nature were bowed in silent prayer as the twilight settles over the valley. The beauty of this Sabbath will never fade from my memory. It was my last one there as a prisoner. The stillness was soon changed to wild confusion and excitement.

Mary Entler Jumps Sides:

I took the oath of allegiance to the United States in June, 1863 in Baltimore, Maryland to Col. Fish who was in command there at the time. I have passed from Gen’l Lockwood commander at H. Ferry 1863 also from Gen’l Stevenson.

late August, 1864 – afterwards Company H., 116 Ohio Infantry, Capt. Peters and Col. Washburns Regiment occupied it, and every partition in the front bedrooms were destroyed. Every mantel piece (they were colonial) all but two were burned. The floor in the garrett of the back building was also destroyed. Enough of new window sash and door frames for a house was stored too. cistern and well floors destroyed and cistern filled with bee hives and rubbish. A fine dressed stable with 25 partitioned off, with board partitions-upper story divided off for grain and sleeping quarters for oster. All was torn out and this weakened the roof so that when a snow came it collapsed. A brick carriage house met the same fate. My father Joseph Entler was an old man at the time, and was never after that financially able to put back what was destroyed by the United States soldiers.


MLH married on February 15, 1865 in Frederick, Maryland Walter L. Herrington, a ticket-agent on the B&O Railroad at Harper’s Ferry.

They lived in her parents’ home of Wingerd Cottage, her parents having been forcibly retired from inn-keeping. Mary’s husband worked as a photographer then, that same year, died an untimely death.

1910: MLH had a dry goods and milliners shop on the south side of German Street.

1914: Mary Herrington paid in trust to George Beltzhoover the remaining western half of the lot of the once Great Western Hotel for 0, a sum to be paid to Nellie M. Entler. – December 5, 1914, Deed Book 111, p. 505. – Jefferson County Clerk.

Mary Herrington was seventy-nine years old, living in Shepherdstown with her seventy-two-year-old-sister, Julia M. Miller, and brother, sixty-nine-year-old Lewis Little.

On June 20th MLH sold the dual-lot Great Western Inn to relative Harry T. Licklider on the condition that she could still live in the inn her natural life with her brother, “the said Home to consist of four rooms of the first floor and five rooms, including a summer kitchen and garden.” Two years later Licklider felt in arrears with the Swift Corporation and was sued and forced to sell the Great Western lands to pay off the debts. So the inn was gone from the family but MLH could literally live there, literally, on borrowed time.

She recalled:
Only the walls of the stables remain today in ruins, covered with Virginia Creeper to screen the ugly scars of the Civil War.

28_Mary L. Herrington was listed as eighty-nine years old
Mary L. Herrington was listed as eighty-nine years old but with her brother, Lewis Little, now listed as head of their house of the south side of German Street between King and Princess Streets near the center of the block, assessed at about ,000. Mary A. Licklider & Mary Herrington 1930 Census with her interviewer Mary A. Licklider living next door at the home of Edward Licklider, Mary’s father.

Mary Louise Herrington died March 27, 1932, having given much of these recollections to Mary A. Licklider, a descendant of Mary’s brother, Cato Moore Entler. Her marker is in Elmwood Cemetery. That summer, the new owner of the Great Western began massive alterations and reductions.

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Aubrey Lee Price
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1973: a year of conflict and scandal

1973 Inflation has a significant impact on peoples lives around the world with the UK inflation rate running at 8.4% and the US running at 6.16% . This causes problems in every aspect of peoples lives from the price of Gas, Food and Bills , which in turn causes higher wages and the spiral continues, much of this is caused by the Arab members of the (OPEC) restricting the flow of oil to countries supporting Israel as part of the Yom Kippur War. And the start of a Recession in Europe causing increased unemployment and a 3 day week in the UK.

Meanwhile in the US two important cases dominate the news with Roe v. Wade making abortion a US constitutional right on the 22nd January and the start of the Watergate hearings in the US Senate, and due to price increase of gas the Japanese car manufacturers with smaller engines and more efficient have an impact of the US car industry.

1973 began with the UK entering the European Economic Community (what would eventually become the EU).

Throughout the year, terrorist attacks hit the British mainland regularly, and by the end of the year rising inflation, industrial disquiet and an international oil crisis saw the government impose electricity rationing on the country’s businesses.

Mounting crisis grips Britain as motorists hunt for ever-dwindling petrol supplies. ‘No Petrol’ signs greeted frustrated motorists in 1973.

The year saw the births of such stars as Kate Beckinsale, Ryan Giggs and Paula Radcliffe, on the downside, it also saw the birth of Crispian Mills, an event that would eventually lead over two decades later to the tragic formation of Kula Shaker.

Musically, 1973 was the year that David Bowie killed off Ziggy Stardust, The Who released Quadrophenia and Pink Floyd released Dark Side of The Moon, and Lou Reed got bitten by fan at a gig. In the singles chart, however, it was the year of Slade. From Cum On Feel The Noize topping the charts for most of March, to Merry Xmas Everybody’s five-week run in the top spot at Christmas, the cheerful West Midlands pub rockers were at their peak – Skweeze Me Pleeze Me also went to number one for them that year.


In the meantime, the public also found time to give the instrumental track Eye Level, by the Simon Park Orchestra, a whole month of chart domination, off the back of its use as the theme tune to the Dutch detective show Van Der Valk.

On the television, several classic, gently undemanding sitcoms made their debut, such as Last Of The Summer Wine, Some Mothers Do ‘Ave ‘Em and Are You Being Served? Elsewhere, Jon Pertwee fought The Master and the Daleks in Doctor Who, Jacob Bronowski educated the nation with his classic documentary The Ascent of Man, and we finally found out what had happened to the Likely Lads.

In cinemas, meanwhile, distrust and paranoia were the order of the day, with The Day of the Jackal, Don’t Look Now, Soylent Green, Serpico and The Wicker Man all mining different veins of nervy tension. Meanwhile, The Exorcist scared a whole generation and changed Mark Kermode’s life forever, some bloke called George Lucas directed American Graffiti and another bloke called Martin Scorsese directed Mean Streets, and Roger Moore’s eyebrow took over the role of James Bond in Live and Let Die.

It was the year of Watergate, the Arab oil embargo and the three-day week.

A pound in 1973 is worth the equivalent of just nine pence today. Decades of inflation have meant the price of a pint of lager is now 20 times what it was 40 years ago. It may be hard to believe at a time when a pint costs around £2.87, but in 1973 you would only have to shell out 14 pence for one.

On January 1 1973 Britain entered what many regarded as a bright new era of her history as a member of the Common Market – even if the Union flag was flying upside down outside the EEC offices in Brussels. By December the country was coming to a near standstill, plunged into darkness by industrial strife, economic mismanagement and cuts in Arab oil supplies in the wake of the Yom Kippur War.

Food prices spiralled and the European butter mountain was sold to Russia at less than a third of the price in the shops. Pensioners were given butter vouchers. Marlon Brando and Maria Schneider discovered an alternative use for it in Last Tango in Paris.

There were still fish in the sea in 1973, and a British trawler fleet to catch them – until Iceland declared exclusive rights in her corner of the Atlantic and started the Cod War.

A real shooting war broke out in October when Egypt and her Arab allies attempted to regain the losses of 1967, provoking the most dangerous superpower confrontation since Cuba.

Another war drew to a close as the Americans disengaged from Vietnam. Engulfed in scandal, Richard Nixon would hobble on into the following year before bowing to the inevitable. Violence in Northern Ireland spread to the mainland with bomb attacks in central London.

Juntas came to power in Chile and Greece, and Princess Anne was at her most glamorous as she married Captain Mark Phillips. Red Rum won his first Grand National, and Sunderland beat Leeds in the FA Cup. A fire at the Summerland holiday complex in the Isle of Man killed 51 people.

Noel Coward and J R R Tolkien departed the earth, and Uri Geller made his spoon-bending television debut.

Interest rates may have been 17 per cent but a three-bedroom semi cost around £10,000. Miners earned £36.79 a week and nurses £18. A pint of beer cost 13p and a loaf of bread 11p.

1973 Events

1 January – The United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland and Denmark entered the European Economic Community.

4 January – 400 children attacked British Army troops in Derry, Northern Ireland.

9 January – Mick Jagger’s request for a Japanese visa is rejected on account of a 1969 drug conviction, putting an end to The Rolling Stones’ plans to perform in Japan during their forthcoming tour.

11 January – The Open University awarded its first degrees.

18 January – The Rolling Stones’ benefit concert for Nicaraguan earthquake victims raises over 0,000.

19 January – The super tug Statesman was sent to protect British fishing vessels from Icelandic ships in the Cod War.

22 January – British share values fell by £4 billion in one day.

25 January – English actor Derren Nesbitt was convicted of assaulting his wife Anne Aubrey.

14 February – David Bowie collapses from exhaustion after a performance at New York’s Madison Square Garden.

20 February – Two Pakistanis were shot dead by police in London after being spotted carrying pistols, which are later established to have been fake pistols.

27 February – Rail workers and civil servants went on strike.

1 March – Pink Floyd released The Dark Side Of The Moon. Which goes on to become one of the best-selling albums of all time.

3 March – Two IRA bombs exploded in London, killing one person and injuring 250 others. Ten people were arrested hours later at Heathrow Airport on suspicion of being involved in the bombings.

8 March – Northern Ireland sovereignty referendum (the "Border Poll"): 98.9% of those voting in the province wanted Northern Ireland to remain within the UK. Turnout was 58.7%, although less than 1% for Catholics. This was the first referendum on regional government in the U.K.

IRA bombs exploded in Whitehall and the Old Bailey in London.

8 March – Paul McCartney is fined 0 after pleading guilty to charges of growing marijuana outside his Scottish farm.

10 March – The governor of Bermuda Richard Sharples and his aide-de-camp were assassinated.

14 March – The singers Stephen Stills and Véronique Sanson are married near Guildford, England.

17 March – Elizabeth II opened the new London Bridge.

21 March – Lofthouse Colliery disaster: seven men were killed in an inrush of water to the West Yorkshire coal mine.

26 March – Women were admitted into the London Stock Exchange for the first time.

April – Price and Pay Code Stage Two restricted rises in pay and prices.

1 April – VAT came into effect in the UK.

Phase 2 of the counter-inflation policy comes into effect.

6 April – Mr Peter Niesewand, a correspondent of the Guardian newspaper and the BBC, was jailed in Rhodesia for an alleged breach of the Official Secrets Act.

7 April – Cliff Richard takes part in the 18th Eurovision Song Contest. He finishes in 3rd place with the song "Power to All Our Friends".

17 April – British Leyland launched its new Austin Allegro range of small family saloons, to replace the ageing 1100 and 1300 ranges that were sold under the Austin, Morris, Riley, Wolseley, MG and Vanden Plas brands from the range’s 1962 launch.

28 April – Liverpool and Celtic were crowned league champions of England and Scotland respectively.

1 May – 1.6 million workers went on strike over government pay restraints.

4 May – 29 July – Led Zeppelin embarks on a tour of the United States, during which they set the record for highest attendance for a concert, 56,800, at the Tampa Stadium in Tampa, Florida. The record was previously held by The Beatles. Performances for the movie The Song Remains the Same are also filmed.

5 May – 28 July – A BBC Television series The Ascent of Man, written and presented by Jacob Bronowski, aired – there was also an accompanying best selling book.

5 May – Sunderland achieved a shock 1-0 win over Leeds United in the FA Cup final at Wembley. Ian Porterfield scores the only goal of the game. It was the first time that an FA Cup winning team had not contained a single player to be capped at full international level, and the first postwar FA Cup won by a side outside the First Division.

10 May – The Liberal Party gained control of Liverpool council in the local council elections.

12 May – David Bowie is the first rock artist to perform at Earls Court Exhibition Centre.

15 May – In the House of Commons, Edward Heath, the prime minister, described large payments made by Lonrho to Duncan Sandys through the tax haven of the Cayman Islands at a time when the government is trying to implement a counter-inflation policy as the "unacceptable face of capitalism"’

20 May – The Royal Navy sent three frigates to protect British fishing vessels from Icelandic ships in the Cod War dispute.

25 May – Mike Oldfield’s Tubular Bells becomes the first release on Richard Branson’s newly launched Virgin label.

29 May – The Princess Royal announced her engagement to Mark Phillips.

4 June – Ronnie Lane plays his last show with Faces at the Edmonton Sundown in London. Lane had informed the band three weeks earlier that he was quitting.

23 June – A fire at a house in Hull which killed a 6-year-old boy is initially thought to be an accident but it later emerged as the first of 26 fire deaths caused over the next seven years by arsonist Peter Dinsdale.

30 June – Ian Gillan quits Deep Purple.

1 July – The British Library was established.

3 July – David Bowie ‘retires’ his stage persona Ziggy Stardust in front of a shocked audience at the Hammersmith Odeon at the end of his British tour.

4 July – Slade drummer Don Powell is critically injured in a car crash in Wolverhampton; his 20-year-old girlfriend is killed.

6 July – The James Bond film Live and Let Die was released in British cinemas, with the spy being played by 45-year-old The Saint star Roger Moore.

10 July – The Bahamas gained full independence within the Commonwealth of Nations.

13 July – Queen releases their debut album.

15 July – Ray Davies of The Kinks makes an emotional outburst during a performance at White City Stadium, announcing he is quitting the group. He later withdraws the statement.

30 July – £20 million compensation was paid to victims of Thalidomide following an 11-year court case.

31 July – Militant protesters of Ian Paisley disrupted the first sitting of the Northern Ireland Assembly.

Markham Colliery disaster: eighteen coal miners were killed at the coal mine near Staveley, Derbyshire, when the brake mechanism on their cage fails.

8 August – Gordon Banks, the Stoke City and England goalkeeper, announced his retirement from football having lost the sight in one eye in a car crash in October last year.

20 August – Football League president Len Shipman called for the government to bring back the birch as a tactic of dealing with the growing problem of football hooliganism.

The London Symphony Orchestra becomes the first British orchestra to take part in the Salzburg Festival.

21 August – The coroner in the Bloody Sunday inquest accused the British army of "sheer unadulterated murder" after the jury returns an open verdict.

8 September – The IRA detonated bombs in Manchester and Victoria Station in London.

10 September – IRA bombs at King’s Cross and Euston railway stations in London injured 13 people.

The fashion store Biba re-opened in Kensington High Street.
12 September – Further IRA bombs exploded in Oxford Street and Sloane Square.

28 September – Somerset Coalfield last worked (at Lower Writhlington near Radstock).

8 October – London Broadcasting Company, Britain’s first legal commercial Independent Local Radio station, begins broadcasting.

Prime minister Edward Heath announced government proposals for its counter-inflationary Price and Pay Code Stage Three (continuing to July 1974), including limiting pay rises to 7%, restricting price rises, and paying £10 bonuses to pensioners before Christmas – a move which would cost around £80 million, funded by a 9p rise in National Insurance contributions.

16 October – The film Don’t Look Now, containing one of the most graphic sex scenes hitherto shown in mainstream British cinema, is released in a double bill with The Wicker Man.

20 October – The Dalai Lama made his first visit to the UK.

Queen Elizabeth II opens Sydney Opera House.

26 October – Firefighters in Glasgow staged a one-day strike following a pay dispute. Troops were drafted in to run the fire stations.

8 November – The Second Cod War between Britain and Iceland ended.

The government made £146 million compensation available to three nationalised industries to cover losses resulting from the price restraint policies.

12 November – Miners began overtime ban; ambulance drivers began selective strikes.

Television sitcom Last of the Summer Wine began its first series run on BBC One, following a premiere in Comedy Playhouse on 4 January. It would run for 31 series.

14 November – Eight members of the Provisional IRA were convicted of the March bombings in London.

The Princess Royal married Captain Mark Phillips at Westminster Abbey.

November – Karl Jenkins is among the participants in a live-in-the-studio performance of Mike Oldfield’s Tubular Bells for the BBC.

20 November – The Who open their Quadrophenia US tour with a concert at San Francisco’s Cow Palace, but drummer Keith Moon passes out and has to be carried off the stage. 19-year old fan Scot Halpin is selected from the audience to finish the show; Halpin would later be awarded Rolling Stone magazine’s "Pick-Up Player of the Year Award" for his historic performance.

26 November – Peter Walker, the Secretary for Trade and Industry, warned that petrol rationing may have to be introduced in the near future as a result of the oil crisis in the Middle East which was restricting petrol supply.

5 December – The speed limit on motorways was reduced to 50 mph from 70 mph until further notice.

9 December – The Sunningdale Agreement was signed in Sunningdale, Berkshire by Prime Minister Edward Heath, Irish premier Liam Cosgrave, and representatives of the Ulster Unionist Party, the Social Democratic and Labour Party and the Alliance Party of Northern Ireland.

10 December – Brian Josephson shared the Nobel Prize in Physics "for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects".

Geoffrey Wilkinson won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry jointly with Ernst Otto Fischer "for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds".

31 December – As a result of coal shortages caused by industrial action, the electricity consumption reduction measure – the Three-Day Week, announced on 17 December – came into force at midnight.

Inflation has risen to 8.4%.

Start of Secondary banking crisis of 1973-1975.

Vindolanda tablets discovered by Robin Birley near Hadrian’s Wall.

Pizza Hut opens its first UK restaurant in Islington.

The National House Building Council is formed.

Completion of Cromwell Tower, the first tower block on the Barbican Estate in the City of London and at this date London’s tallest residential tower at 42 storeys and 123 metres (404 ft) high.

Death of last pure-bred Norfolk Horn ram.

Top Records


6 January – "Long Haired Lover from Liverpool" – Little Jimmy Osmond.

27 January – "Block Buster!" – Sweet.

3 March – "Cum On Feel the Noize" – Slade.

31 March – "The Twelfth of Never" – Donny Osmond.

7 April – "Get Down" – Gilbert O’Sullivan.

21 April – "Tie a Yellow Ribbon Round the Ole Oak Tree" – Dawn.

19 May – "See My Baby Jive" – Wizzard.

16 June – "Can the Can" – Suzi Quatro.

23 June – "Rubber Bullets" – 10cc.

30 June – "Skweeze Me Pleeze Me" – Slade.

21 July – "Welcome Home" – Peters and Lee.

28 July – "I’m the Leader of the Gang (I Am)" – Gary Glitter.

25 August – "Young Love / "A Million to One" – Donny Osmond.

22 September – "Angel Fingers" – Wizzard.

29 September – "Eye Level" – Simon Park Orchestra.

27 October – "Daydreamer / The Puppy Song" – David Cassidy.

17 November – "I Love You Love Me Love" – Gary Glitter.

15 December – "Merry Xmas Everybody" – Slade.


6 January – 20 All Time Hits of the 50s – Various Artists (1 week)

13 January – Slayed? – Slade (1 week)

20 January – Back to Front – Gilbert O’Sullivan (1 week)

27 January – Slayed? – Slade (2 weeks)

10 February – Don’t Shoot Me I’m Only the Piano Player – Elton John (6 weeks)

24 March – Billion Dollar Babies – Alice Cooper (1 week)

31 March – 20 Flashback Greats of the Sixties – Various Artists (2 weeks)

14 April – Houses of the Holy – Led Zeppelin (2 weeks)

28 April – Ooh-La-La – The Faces (1 week)

5 May – Aladdin Sane – David Bowie (5 weeks)

9 June – Pure Gold – Various Artists (3 weeks)

30 June – That’ll Be the Day – Soundtrack (7 weeks)

18 August – We Can Make It – Peters and Lee (2 weeks)

1 September – Sing It Again Rod – Rod Stewart (3 weeks)

22 September – Goat’s Head Soup – The Rolling Stones (2 weeks)

6 October – Sladest – Slade (3 weeks)

27 October – Hello! – Status Quo (1 week)

3 November – Pin Ups – David Bowie (5 weeks)

8 December – Stranded – Roxy Music (1 week)

15 December – Dreams Are Nuthin’ More Than Wishes – David Cassidy (1 week)

22 December – Goodbye Yellow Brick Road – Elton John (2 weeks)

1973 on television

4 January – The UK and world record breaking long-running comedy series Last of the Summer Wine starts as a 30-minute pilot on BBC1’s Comedy Playhouse show. The first series run starts on 12 November and the programme runs for 37 years until August 2010.

11 January – The Open University awards its first degrees.

25 January – English actor Derren Nesbitt is convicted of assaulting his wife Anne Aubrey.

15 February – The first episode of Some Mothers Do ‘Ave ‘Em airs on BBC1.

14 March – Are You Being Served? begins first regular series (pilot aired 8 September 1972).

25 March – The pilot episode of Open All Hours airs as part of Ronnie Barker’s series Seven of One on BBC1.

March – Experimental Ceefax teletext transmissions begin.

1 April – Prisoner and Escort, the pilot episode of Porridge, airs as part of Seven of One.

5 May–28 July – BBC Television series The Ascent of Man, written and presented by Jacob Bronowski, airs; there is also an accompanying bestselling book.

6 August – James Beck, who stars as Private Joe Walker in the popular BBC sitcom Dad’s Army, dies of a burst pancreas at the age of 44. Although the series continues until 1977, the part of Walker is not recast and the show carries on without him.

8 October – Pat Phoenix leaves the role of Elsie Tanner on Coronation Street after thirteen years.

31 October – Thames Television’s landmark 26 part documentary The World at War begins.

12 November – First series run of Last of the Summer Wine starts on BBC1.

23 November – 10th anniversary of the first episode of Doctor Who.

Smash Martians advertising campaign launches on ITV.


9 January – Whatever Happened to the Likely Lads? (1973–1974)

5 February – The Wombles (1973–1975, 1990–1991 BBC, 1996–1997 ITV)

15 February – Some Mothers Do ‘Ave ‘Em (1973–1978)

26 May – That’s Life! (1973–1994)

13 June – We Are the Champions (1973–1995)

20 August – Why Don’t You? (1973–1995)

12 November – Last of the Summer Wine (1973–2010)


1 January – Pipkins (1973–1981)

30 April – The Tomorrow People (1973–1979, 1992–1995)

15 August – Man About the House (1973–1976)

29 September – New Faces (1973–1978, 1986–1988)

31 October – The World at War (1973–1974)

1 November – Beryl’s Lot (1973–1977)

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Uncle Sam has had better days, #OUCH!
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But Happy 4th of July as the country still is the greatest in the world despite zombies and dangerous people in charge.

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Empire State – NY – Aerial View
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The Empire State Building is a 102-story skyscraper located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, on Fifth Avenue between West 33rd and 34th Streets. It has a roof height of 1,250 feet (380 m), and with its antenna spire included, it stands a total of 1,454 feet (443 m) high. Its name is derived from the nickname for New York, the Empire State. It stood as the world’s tallest building for nearly 40 years, from its completion in early 1931 until the topping out of the original World Trade Center’s North Tower in late 1970. Following the September 11 attacks in 2001, the Empire State Building was again the tallest building in New York (although it was no longer the tallest in the US or the world), until One World Trade Center reached a greater height on April 30, 2012. The Empire State Building is currently the fourth-tallest completed skyscraper in the United States (after the One World Trade Center, the Willis Tower and Trump International Hotel and Tower, both in Chicago), and the 25th-tallest in the world (the tallest now is Burj Khalifa, located in Dubai). It is also the fifth-tallest freestanding structure in the Americas.

The Empire State Building is generally thought of as an American cultural icon. It is designed in the distinctive Art Deco style and has been named as one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World by the American Society of Civil Engineers. The building and its street floor interior are designated landmarks of the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, and confirmed by the New York City Board of Estimate. It was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1986. In 2007, it was ranked number one on the AIA’s List of America’s Favorite Architecture.

The building is owned by the Empire State Realty Trust, of which Anthony Malkin serves as Chairman, CEO and President.[17] In 2010, the Empire State Building underwent a 0 million renovation, with 0 million spent to transform the building into a more energy efficient and eco-friendly structure.[18] The Empire State Building is the tallest Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)-certified building in the United States, having received a gold LEED rating in September 2011.

The site of the Empire State Building was first developed as the John Thompson Farm in the late 18th century. At the time, a stream ran across the site, emptying into Sunfish Pond, located a block away. Beginning in the late 19th century, the block was occupied by the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, frequented by The Four Hundred, the social elite of New York.

The limestone for the Empire State Building came from the Empire Mill in Sanders, Indiana which is an unincorporated town adjacent to Bloomington, Indiana. The Empire Mill Land office is near State Road 37 and Old State Road 37 just south of Bloomington. Bloomington, Bedford and Oolitic area are known locally as the limestone capital of the world

Design and construction:
The Empire State Building was designed by William F. Lamb from the architectural firm Shreve, Lamb and Harmon, which produced the building drawings in just two weeks, using its earlier designs for the Reynolds Building in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, and the Carew Tower in Cincinnati, Ohio (designed by the architectural firm W. W. Ahlschlager & Associates) as a basis. Every year the staff of the Empire State Building sends a Father’s Day card to the staff at the Reynolds Building in Winston-Salem to pay homage to its role as predecessor to the Empire State Building. The building was designed from the top down. The general contractors were The Starrett Brothers and Eken, and the project was financed primarily by John J. Raskob and Pierre S. du Pont. The construction company was chaired by Alfred E. Smith, a former Governor of New York and James Farley’s General Builders Supply Corporation supplied the building materials. John W. Bowser was project construction superintendent.

Excavation of the site began on January 22, 1930, and construction on the building itself started symbolically on March 17—St. Patrick’s Day—per Al Smith’s influence as Empire State, Inc. president. The project involved 3,400 workers, mostly immigrants from Europe, along with hundreds of Mohawk iron workers, many from the Kahnawake reserve near Montreal. According to official accounts, five workers died during the construction. Governor Smith’s grandchildren cut the ribbon on May 1, 1931. Lewis Wickes Hine’s photography of the construction provides not only invaluable documentation of the construction, but also a glimpse into common day life of workers in that era.

The construction was part of an intense competition in New York for the title of "world’s tallest building". Two other projects fighting for the title, 40 Wall Street and the Chrysler Building, were still under construction when work began on the Empire State Building. Each held the title for less than a year, as the Empire State Building surpassed them upon its completion, just 410 days after construction commenced. Instead of taking 18 months as anticipated, the construction took just under fifteen. The building was officially opened on May 1, 1931 in dramatic fashion, when United States President Herbert Hoover turned on the building’s lights with the push of a button from Washington, D.C. Coincidentally, the first use of tower lights atop the Empire State Building, the following year, was for the purpose of signaling the victory of Franklin D. Roosevelt over Hoover in the presidential election of November 1932.

The building’s opening coincided with the Great Depression in the United States, and as a result much of its office space was initially unrented. The building’s vacancy was exacerbated by its poor location on 34th Street, which placed it relatively far from public transportation, as Grand Central Terminal and Penn Station, built decades beforehand, are several blocks away, as is the more recently built Port Authority Bus Terminal. Other more successful skyscrapers, such as the Chrysler Building, did not have this problem. In its first year of operation, the observation deck took in approximately 2 million dollars, as much money as its owners made in rent that year. The lack of renters led New Yorkers to deride the building as the "Empty State Building". The building would not become profitable until 1950. The famous 1951 sale of the Empire State Building to Roger L. Stevens and his business partners was brokered by the prominent upper Manhattan real-estate firm Charles F. Noyes & Company for a record million. At the time, that was the highest price paid for a single structure in real-estate history.

Above the 102nd floor

On the 102nd floor of the Empire State Building there is a door with stairs ascending up, which leads into the 103rd floor. This was originally built as a disembarkation floor for airships tethered to the building’s spire, and features a circular balcony outside the room as well. It is now a hot spot for when celebrities visit, and an access point to reach the spire for maintenance purposes. The room currently contains electrical equipment, though this was edited out, by camera angle, during the "In the Wind" season-four finale of White Collar. Above the 103rd floor, there is a set of stairs and a ladder to reach the spire for maintenance work only. The building’s distinctive Art Deco spire was originally designed to be a mooring mast and depot for dirigibles. The 103rd floor was originally a landing platform with a dirigible gangplank. A particular elevator, traveling between the 86th and 102nd floors, was supposed to transport passengers after they checked in at the observation deck on the 86th floor. However, the idea proved to be impractical and dangerous after a few attempts with airships, due to the powerful updrafts caused by the size of the building itself, as well as the lack of mooring lines tying the other end of the craft to the ground. A large broadcast tower was added to the top of the spire in the early 1950s, in order to support the transmission antennas of several television and FM stations. Up to that point, NBC had the exclusive rights to the site, and – beginning in 1931 – built various, smaller antenna structures dedicated to their television transmissions.

Broadcast stations

New York City is the largest media market in the United States. Since the September 11 attacks, nearly all of the city’s commercial broadcast stations (both television and FM radio) have transmitted from the top of the Empire State Building, although a few FM stations are located at the nearby Condé Nast Building. Most New York City AM stations broadcast from sites across the Hudson River in New Jersey or from other surrounding areas.

Observation decks

The Empire State Building has one of the most popular outdoor observatories in the world, having been visited by over 110 million people. The 86th-floor observation deck offers impressive 360-degree views of the city. There is a second observation deck on the 102nd floor that is open to the public. It was closed in 1999, but reopened in November 2005. It is completely enclosed and much smaller than the first one; it may be closed on high-traffic days. Tourists may pay to visit the observation deck on the 86th floor and an additional amount for the 102nd floor. The lines to enter the observation decks, according to Concierge.com, are "as legendary as the building itself:" there are five of them: the sidewalk line, the lobby elevator line, the ticket purchase line, the second elevator line, and the line to get off the elevator and onto the observation deck. For an extra fee tourists can skip to the front of the line. The Empire State Building makes more money from tickets sales for its observation decks than it does from renting office space.

Height records and comparisons :
The Empire State Building remained the tallest man-made structure in the world for 23 years before it was surpassed by the Griffin Television Tower Oklahoma (KWTV Mast) in 1954. It was also the tallest free-standing structure in the world for 36 years before it was surpassed by the Ostankino Tower in 1967.

The longest world record held by the Empire State Building was for the tallest skyscraper (to structural height), which it held for 42 years until it was surpassed by the North Tower of the World Trade Center in 1972. An early-1970s proposal to dismantle the spire and replace it with an additional 11 floors, which would have brought the building’s height to 1,494 feet (455 m) and made it once again the world’s tallest at the time, was considered but ultimately rejected.

With the destruction of the World Trade Center in the September 11 attacks, the Empire State Building again became the tallest building in New York City, and the second-tallest building in the Americas, surpassed only by the Willis Tower in Chicago. It is currently the fifth-tallest, surpassed by the Willis Tower, the Trump International Hotel and Tower (Chicago), 432 Park Avenue and the new One World Trade Center. One World Trade Center surpassed the roof height of the Empire State Building on April 30, 2012, and became the tallest building in New York City—on the way toward becoming the tallest building in the Americas at a planned 1,776 feet (541 m).

When measured by pinnacle height, the Empire State Building is the fourth-tallest building in the USA, surpassed by One World Trade Center, Willis Tower and Chicago’s John Hancock Center. On clear days, the building can be seen from much of the New York Metropolitan Area, and as far away as New Haven, Connecticut and Morristown, New Jersey.

Neighboring Midtown Manhattan landmarks
The Empire State Building anchors an area of Midtown which features other major Manhattan landmarks as well, including Macy’s Herald Square, Koreatown,[80] Penn Station, Madison Square Garden, and the Flower District. Together, these sites contribute to a significant volume of commuter and tourist pedestrian traffic traversing the southern portion of Midtown Manhattan.

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Entrance to Octopus Garden
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On Explore/Flickr Top 500, Dec. 4, 2008

This is not really Octopus Garden. The noontime’s heat was at its peak, so it is wise to get to a shade. Looking at the view, I wondered about a place called Octopus garden, a fictional place in a song Octopus Garden. I just recalled a song, by Ringo Starr(Beatles, 1969). It goes like this(excerpts) :

…I’d ask my friends to come and see, An octopus’ garden with me
I’d like to be under the sea, In an octopus’ garden in the shade.

We would be warm below the storm, In our little hideaway beneath the waves
Resting our head on the sea bed, In an octopus’ garden near a cave
We would sing and dance around, because we know we can’t be found

I’d like to be under the sea, In an octopus’ garden in the shade…

Pandan Island – East Shore
Honda Bay, Puerto Princesa
Palawan, Philippines

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